Essential Nutrients in the World's Healthiest Foods 

Essential nutrients are nutrients that your body can't make on its own.
How these nutrients are introduced into your body may have a great impact on how well they are utilized. Nutrients do not work alone but in concert (synergistically) with other nutrients. The benefit of deriving nutrients from eating fresh whole foods such as those included on the list of the World's Healthiest Foods is that they provide not only an abundance of individual nutrients but also the variety necessary for their optimal function. This section is designed to inform you about the function of the various nutrients and which of the World's Healthiest Foods are the richest source for each of them.

alpha-carotene
beta-carotene
beta-cryptoxanthin
biotin
calcium
carotenoids
choline
chromium
coenzyme Q
cysteine
enzymes
fiber, dietary

protein
riboflavin-B2
selenium
thiamin-B1
tryptophan
vitamin A
vitamin B12
vitamin B6
vitamin C
vitamin D
vitamin E
vitamin K
zinc

flavonoids
folate
glutamine
iodine
iron
lipoic acid
lutein and zeaxanthin
lycopene
magnesium
manganese
niacin-B3
omega-3 fatty acids
pantothenic acid - B5
potassium

alpha-carotene

Protects your cells from the damaging effects of free radicals
Provides a source of vitamin A
Enhances the functioning of your immune system
Helps your reproductive system function properly
Could you possibly have a high need for more foods that are rich in alpha-carotene?

Well...Smoking and regular alcohol consumption
Not enough fruits and vegetables
Food sources of alpha-carotene : carrots, winter squash, tomatoes, green beans, Swiss chard. To maximize the availability of the carotenoids in the foods listed above, the foods should be eaten raw or steamed lightly.

beta-carotene

Same  protection against free radicals
Provides a source of vitamin A
Enhances the functioning of your immune system
Helps your reproductive system function properly
Need for more foods that are rich in beta-carotene?

Again: Not enough fruits and vegetables
Smoking and regular alcohol consumption
Synthetic beta-carotene supplements are not too good, chance of increase the risk of both colorectal and lung cancer in smokers, especially those who also drink alcohol. A study published by an international team in the January 2004 issue of Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention indicates that beta-carotene consumed as part of whole foods does not have the same negative effects. This study, which pooled data from seven large cohort studies running between 7 and 16 years and involving a subject population of 399,765 participants in North America and Europe, found that beta-carotene from foods was not associated with any increased risk of lung cancer among current smokers or non-smokers. Other carotenoids in foods (lutein, zeaxanthin and lycopene) were also found to have no association with lung cancer risk. (February 26, 2004)
Food sources of beta-carotene include sweet potatoes, carrots, kale, spinach, turnip greens, winter squash, collard greens, cilantro and fresh thyme. And of course best is that the foods  be eaten raw or steamed lightly.

beta-cryptoxanthin

Protects against free radicals
Source of vitamin A

Reduce your risk of lung cancer: A study published by an international team in the January 2004 issue of Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention reported that beta-cryptoxanthin reduced lung cancer risk by more than 30% for those whose diets provided the highest amounts of this carotenoid, and concluded, "Although smoking is the strongest risk factor for lung cancer, greater intake of foods high in beta-cryptoxanthin, such as citrus fruit, may modestly lower the risk." Beta-cryptoxanthin has previously (February 2003) been shown to provide a 41% reduction in the risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis.
Lower your risk of inflammatory polyarthritis: In a study published in the August 2005 issue of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, researchers in the U.K., following 25,000 people, found that among those who developed inflammatory polyarthritis, average intakes of beta-cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin-were 40% and 20% lower, respectively, than in those who did not develop the inflammatory disease. In contrast, those whose diets provided the highest intakes of beta-cryptoxanthin were only half as likely to develop arthritis over 7 to 15 years as those with the lowest intakes.


Food sources of beta cryptoxanthin include
red bell peppers, papaya, cilantro, oranges, corn and watermelon.

carotenoids

Protects against free radical damage.
Provides a source of vitamin A
Enhances the functioning of your immune system
Helps your reproductive system function properly
Food sources of carotenoids include carrots,
sweet potatoes, spinach, kale, collard greens, and tomatoes.
To maximize the availability of the carotenoids in the foods listed above, the foods should be eaten raw or steamed lightly.

biotin

Supports healthy skin through proper fat production
Helps your body make efficient use of sugar
Maintains an energy supply in your nerve cells
Lack or deficiency in high-biotin foods?
Skin-related problems, including cradle cap in infants
Hair loss
Muscle cramps
Lack of good muscle tone or coordination
Swiss chard is a good source of biotin.

calcium

Maintains healthy, strong bones
Supports proper functioning of nerves and muscles
Helps your blood clot
When more high-calcium foods?
Frequent bone fractures
Muscle pain or spasms
Tingling or numbness in your hands and feet
Bone deformities and growth retardation in children
Excellent sources of calcium include spinach, turnip greens, mustard greens, and collard greens.



choline

Keeps your cell membranes, the gates through which nutrients enter and wastes leave your cells, functioning properly
Allows your nerves to communicate with your muscles
Prevenst the build-up of homocysteine in your blood. Homocysteine is a harmful compound that is associated with cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis.
Need for more high-choline foods?
Fatigue
Insomnia
Poor ability of the kidneys to concentrate urine
Accumulation of fats in the blood
Nerve-muscle problems
Food sources of choline include soybeans, egg yolk, butter, peanuts, potatoes, cauliflower, lentils, oats, sesame seeds and flax seeds. (Insufficient research is currently available to classify food sources of choline according to our excellent, very good and good rating system.)

chromium

Helps maintain normal blood sugar and insulin levels
Supports normal cholesterol levels
Need for more high-chromium foods?
Hyperinsulinemia (elevated blood levels of insulin)
High blood pressure
High triglyceride levels
High blood sugar levels
High cholesterol levels
Insulin resistance
Low HDL cholesterol
Romaine lettuce is an excellent source of chromium while onions and tomatoes are very good sources of this mineral. Other food sources of chromium include brewer's yeast, oysters, liver, whole grains, bran cereals, and potatoes. Many people do not get enough chromium in their diet due to food processing methods that remove the naturally occuring chromium in commonly consumed foods.

coenzyme Q10

Restores the power of your vitamin E
Helps prevent cardiovascular disease
Stabilizes blood sugar

When more high-coenzyme Q foods?
Heart problems like angina, arrhythmia, or high blood pressure
Problems with the gums
Stomach ulcers
High blood sugar
Sources of coenzyme Q include: fish, organ meats (like liver, heart, or kidney), and the germ portion of whole grains.
This fascinating nutrient could not be more important to our health, especially the health of our heart and blood vessels. Its chemical structure was discovered in 1957, and since that time, nearly 5,000 research studies on coenzyme Q10 have been published.

In many living creatures, the same chemical pathways that make vitamin E, vitamin K, and folic acid also make coenzyme Q10. While the human body cannot make these other vitamins, it appears that it can make coenzyme Q10

Coenzyme Q is also called ubiquinone, and is often designated as coenzyme Q10. This number "10" following its name refers to a specific part of its chemical structure (called its isoprene tail).

cysteine

Helps your body to detoxify chemicals and heavy metals
Protects cells from free radical damage
Helps breakdown extra mucous in your lungs
What could indicate a need for more high-cysteine foods?
Frequent colds
Food sources of cysteine include poultry, yogurt, egg yolks, red peppers, garlic, onions, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, oats, and wheat germ. Of these sources the ones to avoid or limt are egg yolks and most forms of yoghurt.(look for the live cultures)   Cysteine is a sulfur-containing amino acid that occurs naturally in foods and can also be manufactured by the body from the amino acid methionine. In the production of cysteine, methionine is converted to S-adenosyl methionine (SAM), which is then converted to homocysteine. Homocysteine then reacts with serine to form cysteine. Cysteine is also found in the body and in food as cystine, an amino acid that contains two cysteines joined together.

enzymes

Pretty much all living things - including those we cook and eat - contain enzymes. Enzymes, which help digestion  through a myriad of chemical reactions that make life possible, are a sine qua non for life. (don't have their equal)

Although most food eaten in the west has been cooked, which inactivates the enzymes it contains, all the plant and animal foods in our meals are derived from once-living, enzyme-abundant things.

Over 2,500 different kinds of enzymes are found in living things. So also in us. All enzymes are proteins, very special kinds of proteins that act as catalysts. Enzymes give our body chemistry its vitality, literally giving our metabolism a jump start. Plus, as molecules that enable the breaking down of our food, they also play a critically important role within our digestive system. Enzymes in our saliva allow us to break apart starches. Enzymes in our stomach help us break apart proteins. Enzymes in our intestines help us break apart fats, proteins, and carbohydrates of all kinds.

When we eat fresh, uncooked foods, those foods can still contain active enzymes. When we chew a freshly picked leaf of lettuce, we break the cells in the leaf apart, releasing its nutrients, including enzymes. Enzymes are not automatically destroyed by the acids or temperatures in our digestive tract. Enzymes in the stomach - called gastric enzymes - are specially designed to function in the stomach's extremely acid conditions and are critical to our health. Our bodies can overheat from fever, extreme exercise or summer weather, but not to temperatures that will prevent the enzymes inside us from continuing to function.

Our digestive tract has specialized areas for absorbing large molecules, including enzymes (which are proteins), from food into our bloodstream. These areas house our M cells. M cells are specialized cells designed to selectively deliver large molecules from our intestines into our cells and bloodstream. The passing of enzymes from a mother to her nursing newborn is a good example of this M cell function. A mother's milk contains the milk sugar, lactose. An enzyme called lactase is needed to digest lactose, but an infant's body is not yet capable of manufacturing this enzyme. So, the mother sends lactase along with her milk, and in this way enables the baby to digest and absorb its lactose.

Ordinarily, we cook food at temperatures at least twice that of normal body temperature. For this reason, fresh, raw plant foods are our primary source of food enzymes. ( most animal foods would be too risky for us to eat raw). While there have been no large scale, controlled studies to document the impact of enzyme-containing, fresh, raw plant foods on digestion and health, practitioners in fields of complementary, natural, and functional medicine have used enzyme supplementation successfully to help treat a wide variety of health problems and have long advocated the inclusion of fresh, organic, raw plant foods in the diet. Because of pasteurisation of milk, enzymes in milk are dead and milk and other dairy products have become quite indigestible

fiber, dietary

Supports bowel regularity
Helps maintain normal cholesterol levels
Helps maintain normal blood sugar levels
Helps keep unwanted pounds off
A need for more high fiber foods?
Constipation
Hemorrhoids if related to straining from constipation
High blood sugar levels
High cholesterol levels
Excellent food sources of fiber include: turnip greens, mustard greens, cauliflower, collard greens, broccoli, Swiss chard, and raspberries.

flavonoids

Help protect blood vessels from rupture or leakage
Enhance the power of your vitamin C
Protect cells from oxygen damage
Prevent excessive inflammation throughout your body
What could indicate a need for more high-flavonoid foods?

Easy bruising
Frequent nose bleeds
Excessive swelling after injury
Frequent colds or infections
Sources of flavonoids include: apples, apricots, blueberries, pears, raspberries, strawberries, black beans, cabbage, onions, parsley, pinto beans, and tomatoes.

folate

Supports red blood cell production and help prevent anemia
Helps prevent homocysteine build-up in your blood
Supports cell production, especially in your skin
Allows nerves to function properly
Helps prevent osteoporosis-related bone fractures
Helps prevent dementias including Alzheimer's disease

What could indicate a need for more high-folate foods?
Irritability
Mental fatigue, forgetfulness, or confusion
Depression
Insomnia
General or muscular fatigue
Gingivitis or periodontal disease
Excellent sources of folate include romaine lettuce, spinach, asparagus, turnip greens, mustard greens, calf's liver, parsley, collard greens, broccoli, cauliflower, beets, and lentils.

glutamine

Maintains the health of your intestinal tract
Helps your body produce glutathione, a key antioxidant nutrient
Ensures proper acid-base balance in your body
Helps maintain your muscle mass
What could indicate a need for more high-glutamine foods:

Regular high-intensity exercise
Severe burns
Frequent colds and flus
Intestinal dysbiosis, e.g., irritable bowel syndrome
Low muscle mass or muscle wasting
Food sources of glutamine include cabbage, beets, beef, chicken, fish, beans, and dairy products.

iodine

Helps ensure proper thyroid gland functioning
What could indicate a need for more high-iodine foods?
Goiter (enlargement of the thyroid gland)
Fatigue
Weakness
Depression
Weight gain
Concentrated food sources of iodine include sea vegetables, yogurt, cow's milk, eggs, strawberries and mozzarella cheese.

iron

Enhances oxygen distribution throughout your body
Keeps your immune system healthy
Helps your body produce energy
What events may indicate a need for more high-iron foods?
Fatigue and weakness
Decreased ability to concentrate
Increased susceptibility to infections
Hair loss
Dizziness
Headaches
Brittle nails
Apathy
Depression
Excellent food sources of iron include chard, spinach, turmeric and thyme.

lipoic acid

helps regenerate your vitamin C and vitamin E
maintains your antioxidant defense system
helps regulate your blood sugar
What could indicate a need for more high-lipoic foods?

high blood sugar
frequent colds or infections
eye problems like cataracts or glaucoma
Sources of lipoic include: dark green leafy vegetables, including spinach and collard greens; broccoli; animal foods such as beef steak; and organ meats such as calf's liver.
Lipoic acid (also sometimes called thioctic acid) is an enormously important and under-appreciated nutrient whose chemical structure was first discovered in 1951. Our bodies cannot be maximally efficient in producing energy from carbohydrates or fats without the help of lipoic acid. This nutrient is also classified as an antioxidant, and it plays a direct role in protecting our cells from oxygen damage. In addition, our supplies of several different antioxidants, including vitamins E and C, cannot be successfully maintained in the absence of lipoic acid.

lutein and zeaxanthin

Defends your cells from the damaging effects of free radicals
Protects the eyes from developing age-related macular degeneration and cataracts
What could indicate a need for more foods rich in lutein and zeaxanthin?

Smoking and regular alcohol consumption
Low intake of fruits and vegetables
Food sources of lutein and zeaxanthin include eggs, kale, spinach, turnip greens, collard greens, romaine lettuce, broccoli, zucchini, corn,garden peas and Brussels sprouts. To maximize the availability of the carotenoids in the foods listed above, the foods should be eaten raw or steamed lightly.
Lutein and zeaxanthin are two of the most abundant carotenoids in the North American diet. Unlike beta-carotene, alpha-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthin, these two carotenoids are not considered to be "provitamin A" compounds, as they are not converted in the body into retinol, an active form of vitamin A.

The names of both of these yellow colored phytonutrients reflect their natural hue with lutein being derived from the Latin word luteus meaning golden yellow while zea refers to the corn genus and xantho- is derived from a Greek word that means yellow. While these carotenoids both have yellow pigments, they are found concentrated in foods of others colors, notably leafy green vegetables, since these foods also feature a host of other phytonutrients pigments in addition to lutein and zeaxanthin.

lycopene

Protects your cells from the damaging effects of free radicals
Helps prevent the oxidation of cholesterol, thereby slowing the development of atherosclerosis
What could indicate a need for more high-carotenoid foods?
Smoking and regular alcohol consumption
Low intake of fruits and vegetables
Food sources of lycopene include tomatoes, guava, apricots, watermelon, papaya, and pink grapefruit.

Lycopene is a member of the carotenoid family of phytochemicals and is the natural pigment responsible for the deep red color of several fruits, most notably tomatoes. Although tomatoes have been consumed in abundance throughout the world for centuries, the investigation into the health benefits of lycopene did not begin until the last part of the 20th century. However, in a relatively short period of time, scientists have amassed a significant body of laboratory, animal, and population-based research that supports the role of lycopene in human health, specifically in the prevention of cancers of the prostate, pancreas, stomach, breast, cervix and lung, as well as in the prevention of cardiovascular disease, cataracts, and age-related macular degeneration (a chronic eye condition in which light-sensing cells in the center of the retina stop functioning).

magnesium

Relaxes your nerves and muscles
Builds and strengthen bones
Keeps your blood circulating smoothly
What could indicate a need for more high-magnesium foods?

Muscle weakness, tremor, or spasm
Heart arrhythmia, irregular contraction, or increased heart rate
Softening and weakening of bone
Imbalanced blood sugar levels
Headaches
Elevated blood pressure
Excellent sources of magnesium include Swiss chard and spinach. Avoid overcooking to minimize loss of magnesium.

Magnesium is usually referred to as a "macromineral," which means that our food must provide us with hundreds of milligrams of magnesium every day. (The other macrominerals that all humans must get from food are calcium, phosphorus, sodium:nutrient, potassium, and chloride).

Inside our bodies, magnesium is found mostly in our bones (60-65%), but also in our muscles (25%), and in other cell types and body fluids. Like all minerals, magnesium cannot be made in our body and must therefore be plentiful in our diet in order for us to remain healthy.

Magnesium is sometimes regarded as a "smoothie" mineral, since it has the ability to relax our muscles. Our nerves also depend upon magnesium to avoid becoming overexcited. The use of magnesium as a muscle relaxer is familiar to many individuals who have taken liquid magnesium (for example, through the product Milk of Magnesia™) as a laxative. This product can help relieve constipation by relaxing the muscles around the intestine.
Most people have too low levels of magnesium.

manganese

Helps your body utilize several key nutrients such as biotin, thiamin, ascorbic acid, and choline
Keeps your bones strong and healthy
Helps your body synthesize fatty acids and cholestorol
Maintains normal blood sugar levels
Promotes optimal function of your thyroid gland
Maintains the health of your nerves
Protects your cells from free-radical damage
What could indicate a need for more high-manganese foods?
Nausea
Vomiting
Poor glucose tolerance (high blood sugar levels)
Skin rash
Loss of hair color
Excessive bone loss
Low cholesterol levels
Dizziness
Hearing loss
Reproductive system difficulties
Excellent food sources of manganese include mustard greens, kale, chard, raspberries, pineapple, romaine lettuce, collard greens and maple syrup.
And...... when corn is in season... eat as much as you can

niacin-B3

Helps lower cholesterol levels
Stabilizes your blood sugar
Supports genetic processes in your cells
Helps your body process fats
What could indicate a need for more foods high in vitamin B3?
Generalized weakness or muscular weakness
Lack of appetite
Skin infections
Digestive problems
Excellent sources of vitamin B3 (niacin) include crimini mushrooms and tuna. Very good sources include salmon, chicken breast, asparagus, halibut, and venison.

omega-3 fatty acids
(not to be confused with omega-6, another polyunsaturate fatty acid(pufa) of which we get way too much and is the cause of a lot of inflammation)
Reduce inflammation throughout your body
Keep your blood from clotting excessively
Maintain the fluidity of your cell membranes
lower the amount of lipids (fats such as cholesterol and triglycerides) circulating in the bloodstream
decrease platelet aggregation, preventing excessive blood clotting
inhibit thickening of the arteries by decreasing endothelial cells' production of a platelet-derived growth factor (the lining of the arteries is composed of endothelial cells)
increase the activity of another chemical derived from endothelial cells (endothelium-derived nitric oxide), which causes arteries to relax and dilate
reduce the production of messenger chemicals called cytokines, which are involved in the inflammatory response associated with atherosclerosis
reduce the risk of becoming obese and improve the body's ability to respond to insulin by stimulating the secretion of leptin, a hormone that helps regulate food intake, body weight and metabolism, and is expressed primarily by adipocytes (fat cells)
help prevent cancer cell growth
What conditions or symptoms indicate a need for more high-omega-3 foods?
Depression
Cardiovascular Disease
Type 2 Diabetes
Fatigue
Dry, itchy skin
Brittle hair and nails
Inability to concentrate
Joint pain
Salmon, flax seeds and walnuts are excellent food sources of omega 3 fatty acids. Don't go overboard on the walnuts because they do also have a high content Omega-6.

pantothenic acid - B5

Helps turn carbohydrates and fats into usable energy
Improves your ability to respond to stress by supporting your adrenal glands
Assures adequate production of healthy fats in your cells
Need for more high-B5 foods?

Fatigue
Listlessness
Sensations of weakness
Numbness, tingling, and burning/shooting pain in the feet
Mushrooms are an excellent food source of vitamin B5 while cauliflower is a very good source. Good sources of vitamin B5 include broccoli, turnip greens and sunflower seeds.

potassium

Helps your muscles and nerves function properly
Maintains the proper electrolyte and acid-base balance in your body
Helps lower your risk of high blood pressure
Need for more high-potassium foods?
Muscle weakness
Confusion
Irritability
Fatigue
Heart problems
Chronic diarrhea
Regular, intense exercise
Use of certain diuretics
Potassium is found abundantly in many foods, and is especially easy to obtain in fruits and vegetables. Excellent sources of potassium include chard, button mushrooms, and spinach.

protein

Keeps your immune system functioning properly
Maintains healthy skin, hair and nails
Helps your body produce enzymes
Need for more high-protein foods?
Muscle wasting
Weight loss
Fatigue and weakness
Frequent infections
Severe edema (fluid retention)
Slow growth and development in children
Excellent sources of protein include tuna, shrimp and cod.
And of course a healthy steak from grass fed beef

riboflavin-B2

Helps protect cells from oxygen damage
Supports cellular energy production
Maintains your supply of other B vitamins
What  can indicate a need for more foods high in vitamin B2?
Sensitivity to light
Tearing, burning and itching in and around the eyes
Soreness around the lips, mouth, and tongue
Cracking of the skin at the corners of the mouth
Peeling of the skin, particularly around the nose
Excellent sources of vitamin B2 include mushrooms, calf's liver, spinach and spelt.

selenium

Protects cells from free-radical damage
Enables your thyroid to produce thyroid hormone
Helps lower your risk of joint inflammation
When would you have a need for more high-selenium foods?
Weakness or pain in the muscles
Discoloration of the hair or skin
Whitening of the fingernail beds
Excellent sources of selenium include button mushrooms, shiitake mushrooms, cod, shrimp, snapper, tuna, halibut, calf's liver, and salmon.

In addition, Brazil nuts are one of the most concentrated food sources of selenium, featuring about 70-90 micrograms per nut. Despite their reputation of being selenium rich, macadamia nuts are not an especially concentrated source of this mineral. Each nut only has about 0.3 mcg.

thiamin-B1

Maintains your energy supplies
Coordinates the activity of nerves and muscles
Supports proper heart function
Indications you need more foods high in vitamin B1?

Loss of appetite
"Pins and needles" sensations
Feeling of numbness, especially in the legs
Muscle tenderness, particularly in the calf muscles
Very good sources of vitamin B1 include asparagus, romaine lettuce, mushrooms, spinach, sunflower seeds, tuna, green peas, tomatoes, eggplant and Brussels sprouts.


tryptophan

Helps regulate your appetite
Helps you sleep better
Elevates your mood
What can indicate a need for more high-tryptophan foods?
Depression
Anxiety
Irritability
Impatience
Impulsiveness
Inability to concentrate
Weight gain or unexplained weight loss
Slow growth in children
Overeating and/or carbohydrate cravings
Poor dream recall
Insomnia
Food sources of tryptophan include red meat, dairy products, nuts, seeds, bananas, soybeans and soy products, tuna, shellfish, and turkey.

vitamin A

Preserves and improve your eyesight
Helps you fight off viral infections
What can indicate a need for more high-vitamin A foods?
Frequent viral infections
Night blindness
Goose bump-like appearance of the skin
Although vitamin A is found only in foods of animal origin, some fruits and vegetables contain compounds, called cartenoids, that can be converted into vitamin A by your body. Food sources of preformed vitamin A include calf liver, milk, and eggs.

vitamin B12

supports production of red blood cells and prevent anemia
allows nerve cells to develop properly
helps your cells metabolize protein, carbohydrate, and fat
What  can indicate a need for more high-vitamin B12 foods?

red or sore tongue
tingling or numbness in feet
nervousness
heart palpitations
depression
memory problems
Excellent sources of vitamin B12 include calf's liver and snapper.

vitamin B6

Supports a wide range of activities in your nervous system
Promotes proper breakdown of sugars and starches
Helps prevent homocysteine build-up in your blood
What  can indicate a need for more high-vitamin B6 foods ?

Fatigue or malaise
Anemia
Skin disorders including eczema and seborrheic dermatitis
Convulsions or seizures
Excellent sources of vitamin B6 include bell peppers, turnip greens, and spinach.

vitamin C

Helps protect cells from free radical damage
Lowers your cancer risk
Regenerates your vitamin E supplies
Improves iron absorption
Need for more high-vitamin C foods?

Poor wound healing
Frequent colds or infections
Lung-related problems
Excellent sources of vitamin C include: parsley, broccoli, bell pepper, strawberries, oranges, lemon juice, papaya, cauliflower, kale, mustard greens, and Brussels sprouts.
Because this is a water soluble vitamin our body does not store it. Meaning we need it on a regular basis. If taken as supplement make sure it is the timed release form. Especially when fighting a cold it is recommended to take the timed release form.

vitamin D
(usually meant to be D3)
Helps prevent a growing list of chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, osteoporisis, breast cancer, colon cancer, and ovarian cancer
Help keep your bones and teeth strong and healthy
Regulate the growth and activity of your cells
Reduce inflammation
Need for more foods rich in vitamin D?
Bone pain and/or soft bones
Frequent bone fractures
Bone deformities or growth retardation in children
Lack of exposure to sunlight for any reason, including geography, use of sunscreen, or wearing of protective clothing
Concentrated food sources of vitamin D include salmon, sardines, shrimp, milk, cod, and eggs.

Sockeye salmon are an exceptionally rich source of vitamin D: a 4-ounce serving of baked or broiled sockeye salmon provides more than 700 IU of vitamin D. The same 4-ounce serving of chinook salmon, another excellent source of vitamin D, supplies 411 IU.

Sockeye salmon are more richly endowed with vitamin D than other salmon species because they feed on zooplankton for much of their diet, and zooplankton-along with phytoplankton-are the key sources of vitamin D in the marine food chain. The zooplankton eaten by salmon are tiny marine animals, such as larval-stage crustaceans, while the phytoplankton eaten by salmon are small, plant-like marine organisms.

Both types of minuscule sea life create lots of vitamin D from sunlight, and zooplankton feed on phytoplankton, building up their vitamin D content to even higher levels.

Chinook, on the other hand, feast on insects and sideswimmers when young, then consume a variety of fish, especially smelt and ciscoes, a type of lake herring, as they mature.

vitamin E

Protects your skin from ultraviolet light
Prevents cell damage from free radicals
Allows your cells to communicate effectively
Helps protect against prostate cancer and Alzheimer's disease
In fact Vit E seems to alleviate or slow down the effects of aging
Together with A, C, and D it helps with a host of problems

Digestive system problems, especially malabsorption
Tingling or loss of sensation in the arms, hands, legs, or feet
Liver or gallbladder problems
Excellent sources of vitamin E include: mustard greens, chard, sunflower seeds, and turnip greens. Very good sources include almonds , spinach and wheat germ..

vitamin K

Allows your blood to clot normally
Helps protect against osteoporosis
Prevent oxidative cell damage
Need for more high-vitamin K foods?

Excessive bruising and bleeding
Digestive system problems, especially malabsorption
Liver or gallbladder problems
Excellent sources of vitamin K include: spinach, Brussels sprouts, Swiss chard, green beans, asparagus, broccoli, kale and mustard greens. Very good sources include green peas and carrots.

vitamin K2
A little bit a different story. Vit K2 is being researched at the moment as a possible essential nutrient in connection with atherosclerosis. VitK2 is abundant in spring butter.
Both osteoporosis and arterial calcification may turn out to be symptoms of vitamin K2 deficiency, resulting from the modern fear of animal fats and organs, and the deterioration of traditional animal husbandry practices. So eat your pastured dairy, organs, fish roe and shellfish!
When the cows are back on pasture. Or so we hope.
For more information check here

zinc

Helps balance blood sugar
Stabilizes your metabolic rate
Prevents a weakened immune system
Supports an optimal sense of smell and taste
Quite well known now is the benefit of zinc when having a cold
and further..
Impaired sense of taste or smell
Lack of appetite
Depression
Growth failure in children
Frequent colds and infections
Very good sources of zinc include: calf's liver, mushrooms and spinach.


But whatever you do, whatever you eat , whatever you feed your children,
we are not eating nutrients, we are eating food, food that should be nutritious.
Your diet should be nutrient dense and as much as possible free from
ingredients that do not contribute to a healthy metabolism.
It boils basically down to how you feed your mitochondria, how the 'furnace' in the cell
the cytochromes are fed the energy to produce the ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
which is the life force
Nutritious food comes most often from animal sources, either from land or sea,
and if from land, always grass fed, be that beef, pork or chicken.
Nothing else will do because it is loaded with hormones, antibiotics and residual
pesticides, and polyunsaturated fats which cause an overload of ROS
(Reactive Oxygen Species) and is responsible for the formation of ALEs
which are the prime factors in the shortening of your telomeres
and as such aging.
Polyunsaturated fats and Omega6 overload are the reason
you are getting old, and wrinkled, and creaky



Essential Nutrients
Phytochemicals—or plant chemicals—are found
in all types of plant foods. Those that have
received the greatest attention for their role in
protecting against heart disease are
phytoestrogens (soy), organosulfer compounds
(garlic and onions), flavonoids (berries, grape
juice, red wine, green vegetables, tea and many
herbs), and plant sterols (many plant foods
Compliments of PalliserGroup.com
and Palliser Gardens Organics
All this information can also be found on the website of
"The World's Healthiest Foods"
All this information can also be found on the website of "The World's Healthiest Foods"
All this information, and much more can also be found on the website of "The World's Healthiest Foods"
All this information, and much more can also be found on the website of "The World's Healthiest Foods"
Butter from pastured cows is one of the richest known sources of vitamin K2. Vitamin K2 plays a central role in protecting against arterial calcification, which is an integral part of arterial plaque and the best single predictor of cardiovascular death risk. In the early 20th century, butter was typically from pastured cows.
Both osteoporosis and arterial calcification may turn out to be symptoms of vitamin K2 deficiency, resulting from the modern fear of animal fats and organs, and the deterioration of traditional animal husbandry practices. So eat your pastured dairy, organs, fish roe and shellfish!
Usually when a substance lowers the LDL it means that the HDL has increased and there has been more "export" activity.
You can also raise your HDL through aerobic exercise.
See also :The Truth about Cholesterol